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A Python Interpreter written in Rust
A Python-3 (CPython >= 3.12.0) Interpreter written in Rust :snake: :scream: :metal:.
Check out our online demo running on WebAssembly.
RustPython requires Rust latest stable version (e.g 1.67.1 at February 7th 2023). If you don't currently have Rust installed on your system you can do so by following the instructions at rustup.rs.
To check the version of Rust you're currently running, use
rustc --version. If you wish to update,
rustup update stable will update your Rust installation to the most recent stable release.
To build RustPython locally, first, clone the source code:
git clone https://github.com/RustPython/RustPython
Then you can change into the RustPython directory and run the demo (Note:
needed to prevent stack overflow on Windows):
$ cd RustPython
$ cargo run --release demo_closures.py
Or use the interactive shell:
$ cargo run --release
Welcome to rustpython
NOTE: For windows users, please set
RUSTPYTHONPATH environment variable as
Lib path in project directory.
(e.g. When RustPython directory is
You can also install and run RustPython with the following:
$ cargo install --git https://github.com/RustPython/RustPython
Welcome to the magnificent Rust Python interpreter
If you'd like to make https requests, you can enable the
ssl feature, which
also lets you install the
pip package manager. Note that on Windows, you may
need to install OpenSSL, or you can enable the
ssl-vendor feature instead,
which compiles OpenSSL for you but requires a C compiler, perl, and
Once you've installed rustpython with SSL support, you can install pip by running:
cargo install --git https://github.com/RustPython/RustPython --features ssl
You can also install RustPython through the
conda package manager, though
this isn't officially supported and may be out of date:
conda install rustpython -c conda-forge
You can compile RustPython to a standalone WebAssembly WASI module so it can run anywhere.
cargo build --target wasm32-wasi --no-default-features --features freeze-stdlib,stdlib --release
Run by wasmer
wasmer run --dir . target/wasm32-wasi/release/rustpython.wasm extra_tests/snippets/stdlib_random.py
Run by wapm
$ wapm install rustpython
$ wapm run rustpython
Building the WASI file
You can build the WebAssembly WASI file with:
cargo build --release --target wasm32-wasi --features="freeze-stdlib"
Note: we use the
freeze-stdlibto include the standard library inside the binary. You also have to run once
rustup target add wasm32-wasi.
JIT (Just in time) compiler
RustPython has a very experimental JIT compiler that compile python functions into native code.
By default the JIT compiler isn't enabled, it's enabled with the
jit cargo feature.
cargo run --features jit
This requires autoconf, automake, libtool, and clang to be installed.
To compile a function, call
__jit__() on it.
a = 5
return 10 + a
foo.__jit__() # this will compile foo to native code and subsequent calls will execute that native code
assert foo() == 15
Embedding RustPython into your Rust Applications
Interested in exposing Python scripting in an application written in Rust,
perhaps to allow quickly tweaking logic where Rust's compile times would be inhibitive?
examples/mini_repl.rs may be of some assistance.
RustPython is in development, and while the interpreter certainly can be used in interesting use cases like running Python in WASM and embedding into a Rust project, do note that RustPython is not totally production-ready.
Contribution is more than welcome! See our contribution section for more information on this.
Checkout those talks on conferences:
Although RustPython is a fairly young project, a few people have used it to make cool projects:
- GreptimeDB: an open-source, cloud-native, distributed time-series database. Using RustPython for embedded scripting.
- pyckitup: a game engine written in rust.
- Robot Rumble: an arena-based AI competition platform
- Ruff: an extremely fast Python linter, written in Rust
- Full Python-3 environment entirely in Rust (not CPython bindings)
- A clean implementation without compatibility hacks
Currently along with other areas of the project, documentation is still in an early phase.
You can also generate documentation locally by running:
cargo doc # Including documentation for all dependencies
cargo doc --no-deps --all # Excluding all dependencies
Documentation HTML files can then be found in the
target/doc directory or you can append
--open to the previous commands to
have the documentation open automatically on your default browser.
For a high level overview of the components, see the architecture document.
Contributions are more than welcome, and in many cases we are happy to guide contributors through PRs or on Discord. Please refer to the development guide as well for tips on developments.
With that in mind, please note this project is maintained by volunteers, some of the best ways to get started are below:
To enhance CPython compatibility, try to increase unittest coverage by checking this article: How to contribute to RustPython by CPython unittest
Another approach is to checkout the source code: builtin functions and object methods are often the simplest and easiest way to contribute.
You can also simply run
./whats_left.py to assist in finding any unimplemented
Compiling to WebAssembly
See this doc
Chat with us on Discord.
Code of conduct
Our code of conduct can be found here.
These are some useful links to related projects:
This project is licensed under the MIT license. Please see the LICENSE file for more details.
The project logo is licensed under the CC-BY-4.0 license. Please see the LICENSE-logo file for more details.